National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019-21: Tripura


Since 1992, the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, has conducted the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The NFHS report for 2019-21 is the fifth in this series. It provides information on population, health and nutrition in 28 states, eight union territories, and 707 districts of India.

NFHS-5 presents district-level data on indicators such as population, fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, domestic violence and disability. This report on Tripura – published in August 2021 – presents information covering eight districts. The Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR), Jaipur, conducted the fieldwork for the report between July 4 and November 10, 2019, covering 7,209 households, 7,314 women (aged 15-49 years) and 990 men (aged 15-54 years).

This 206-page document is divided into 14 sections: Introduction (Section 1); Household Characteristics (Section 2); Education (Section 3); Fertility (Section 4); Family Planning (Section 5); Infant and Child Mortality (Section 6); Maternal Health (Section 7); Child Health (Section 8); Breastfeeding, Nutrition, and Anaemia (Section 9); Adult Health and Health Care (Section 10); HIV/AIDS (Section 11); Sexual Behaviour (Section 12); Women’s Empowerment (Section 13); and Domestic Violence (Section 14).


  1. The report states that 59.3 per cent of all surveyed households in Tripura lived in a semi-pucca house and 33 per cent lived in a pucca house. Around 98 per cent of the households surveyed had access to electricity.

  2. The survey collected information on the level of preschool attendance in Tripura. It shows that around 52 per cent of boys and 50 per cent of girls aged 2-4 years were attending preschool.

  3. Among children aged 6-17 years, 90.8 per cent (94.7 per cent from urban areas and 89.5 per cent from rural areas) were attending school.

  4. The report states that about 40 per cent of all surveyed women between 20 and 24 years of age – compared to the 33 per cent during NFHS-4 – had married before attaining the legal minimum age of 18 years. About 22 per cent of women (aged 20-24 years) were never married while 78 per cent of men (aged 20-24 years) were never married. This, the report states, shows that the age at marriage is much lower for women than men.

  5. A considerable percentage of men and women (92 per cent women and 89 per cent men) consider two or fewer children to be the ideal family size. However, data indicates that there is a preference for sons. Among women with two children, 93 and 92 percent with one and two sons respectively, do not want more children. On the other hand, 88 per cent women with two daughters do not want more children.

  6. The infant mortality rate is 38 deaths (before the age of one year) per 1,000 live births. The rate has increased in both rural and urban areas in comparison to the NFHS-4 (27 deaths per 1,000 live births) survey results. However, it has decreased from the estimates in NFHS-3 (52 deaths), NFHS-2 (44 deaths) and NFHS-1 (76 deaths).

  7. Among all births taking place in the five years preceding the survey, 89 per cent took place in a health facility whereas 11 per cent happened at home.

  8. Among children aged 12-23 months, 82.4 per cent in urban areas and 65.5 per cent in rural areas had received all basic vaccination for major childhood illnesses such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and measles. Overall, two per cent of children in that age group had not received any vaccinations.

  9. About 26 per cent of children in Tripura under the age of five years are underweight (including both chronic and acute undernutrition). The report adds that 18 per cent of children are wasted (too thin for their height) and about 32 per cent of children are stunted (too short for their age).

  10. Nearly 64 per cent of children between 6-59 months of age are anaemic. Around 67 per cent of women and 37 per cent of men in the state have anaemia, the report notes.

  11. The report states that 56 per cent of men and 39 per cent of women in the age group 15-49 years consume some form of tobacco. In the same age group, 35.9 per cent men and 4.3 per cent of women drink alcohol.

  12. As few as 15 per cent of women and 30 per cent of men in the state have ‘comprehensive knowledge’ of HIV/AIDS. While 85 per cent men knew that consistent use of condoms can help in preventing HIV/AIDS, only 60 per cent women knew about this fact.

  13. Of all the people surveyed, only 31 per cent of women and 81 per cent of men in the age group 15-49 years were employed in the 12 months prior to the survey.

  14. Only 33 per cent of all households (24.9 per cent in urban areas and 36.5 per cent in rural areas) surveyed had any health insurance in which at least one member of the household was covered.

  15. In Tripura, about 27 per cent of women aged 18-49 years have experienced physical violence, the report states. About seven per cent women aged 18-49 years have experienced sexual violence. Overall, 21 per cent of women have experienced either physical or sexual violence and six per cent have experienced both physical and sexual violence.

    Focus and Factoids by Purbasha Das.


    PARI Library's health archive project is part of an initiative supported by the Azim Premji University to develop a free-access repository of health-related reports relevant to rural India.


International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai

Contributors: Chander Shekhar, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, S.K. Singh and Akash N. Wankhede


Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi


Aug, 2021