National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019-20 Fact Sheets: Key Indicators – 22 States/UTs from Phase-I
Since 1992, the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, has conducted the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the government of India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The survey provides detailed information on population, health, and nutrition in each state and union territory of India. The 2019-20 (NFHS-5) survey is being released in phases due to delays caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
This publication is a compendium of fact sheets –
each containing 131 indicators – for 22 states and union territories: Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman
and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala,
Lakshadweep, Ladakh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland,
Sikkim, Telangana, Tripura and West Bengal. It
was published on December 12, 2020.
on the socio-economic characteristics of households, education, fertility,
family planning, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. It
also gathered information on reproductive health, sexual behaviour, marriage,
domestic violence, and attitudes towards gender roles. And it included information
on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, nutrition, water and sanitation, health services
Comparisons between NFHS-4 (2015-16) and NFHS-5 (2019-20) are possible as their contents are similar. Additionally, NFHS-5 covers topics such as preschool education, disability, access to toilet facilities, death registration, bathing practices during menstruation, and methods and reasons for abortion.
NFHS-5 indicates a decline in the nutritional status of children under five years between 2015-16 and 2019-20. In this period, the number of children who suffered stunting (low height for their age) increased from 26.3 to 30.8 per cent in Himachal Pradesh; 19.7 to 23.4 per cent in Kerala; 34.4 to 35.2 per cent in Maharashtra; 43.8 to 46.5 per cent in Meghalaya; and 32.5 to 33.8 per cent in West Bengal.
The percentage of children under five who suffered from wasting (low weight for their height) remained constant in Maharashtra (25.6 per cent) and West Bengal (20.3), as compared to NHFS-4. However, ‘severe wasting’ increased from 9.4 to 10.9 per cent in Maharashtra, and 6.5 to 7.1 per cent in West Bengal.
In Lakshadweep, the number of children under five who suffered from stunting increased from 26.8 per cent in NFHS-4, to 32 per cent in NFHS-5. Wasting increased from 13.7 to 17.4 per cent, and severe wasting rose from 2.9 to 8.7 per cent.
Bihar showed a decline in stunting among children under five years, from 48.3 per cent in NFHS-4, to 42.9 per cent in NFHS-5. In the same period, there was a rise of about two percentage points in both wasting (20.8 to 22.9 per cent) and severe wasting (7 to 8.8 per cent).
The percentage of overweight children under five years increased in 20 of the 22 states and union territories covered in this report. (A decrease was noted in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, as well as Goa.) The figure rose from 1.9 to 3.9 per cent in Gujarat, 2.3 to 4.9 per cent in Assam, and 1.9 to 5.7 per cent in Himachal Pradesh.
West Bengal recorded a rise in institutional deliveries from 75.2 per cent in NFHS-4, to 91.7 per cent in NFHS-5. The infant mortality rate also improved from 27.5 to 22, per 1,000 live births.
As compared to NFHS-4, the average ‘out-of-pocket expenditure’ per delivery in a public health facility, increased in Assam (from Rs. 3,281 to Rs. 5,415); Bihar (Rs. 1,784 to Rs. 2,848); Manipur (Rs. 10,348 to Rs. 14,518); Mizoram (Rs. 4,298 to Rs. 7,008) and Sikkim (Rs. 3,993 to Rs. 8,334).
In Karnataka, 88.7 per cent of surveyed women use their own bank or savings account (as compared to 59.4 per cent in NFHS-4), and 61.8 per cent use a personal mobile phone (from 47.1 per cent in NFHS-4). But only 35 per cent of women have used the internet before – 24.8 per cent in rural and 50.1 in urban areas.
In Sikkim, the number of women (76.7 per cent) and men (78.2 per cent) who have used the internet before is nearly the same.
Ladakh (72.2 per cent), Karnataka (67.6 per cent) and Telangana (66.6 per cent) had the highest percentage of women who owned a house or land, jointly or with others.
Half of the 22 states and union territories covered in this report, showed a decline in the percentage of women owning land or a house, jointly or with others, as compared to NFHS-4. The maximum decline was recorded in Tripura (57.3 to 17.2 per cent), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (29.7 to 15.8 per cent), Lakshadweep (42.6 to 30.7 per cent) and Maharashtra (34.3 to 22.9 per cent).
Female sterilization was reported to be the most widely used family planning method – over male sterilization, pills, condoms, and others – in all states and union territories covered except Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The percentage of married women between 15 and 49 years who underwent sterilization was highest in Andhra Pradesh (69.6 per cent), Telangana (61.9 per cent), Karnataka (57.4 per cent), Maharashtra (49.1 per cent), and Kerala (46.6 per cent).
The highest rates of spousal violence among married women aged 18 to 49 years, were recorded in Karnataka (44.4 per cent), Bihar (40 per cent), Manipur (39.6 per cent), Telangana (36.9 per cent) and Assam (32 per cent).
In Karnataka, there was an increase in spousal violence (20.6 per cent in NFHS-4 to 44.4 per cent in NFHS-5), and a decrease in physical violence during pregnancy (6.5 to 5.8 per cent), among married women aged 18 to 49 years.
Focus and Factoids by Vaishnavi Iyer.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi
12 Dec, 2020