Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India: NSS 75th Round (July 2017-June 2018)
This November 2019 report by the National Statistical Office presents the results of the survey ‘Household Social Consumption: Education in India’. It was conducted as part of the 75th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS), administered between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018.
The National Sample Survey Office (in May, 2019, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation was re-structured such that the NSSO and Central Statistical Organisation were merged to form the National Statistical Office) conducted its first survey on social consumption as part of the NSS’s 35th round (July 1980 to June 1981); subsequently, such surveys have been done in the NSS’s 42nd round (July 1986 to June 1987), 52nd round (July 1995 to June 1996), 64th round (July 2007 to June 2008) and 71st round (January to June, 2014).
The objective of the ‘Household Social Consumption: Education in India’ survey was to build indicators to examine the participation of persons aged 3 to 35 years in the education system, those who do not avail of such education ( including those who are enrolled in courses but do not attend classes), and the expenditure incurred on education by households across India. It covered 113,757 households (64,519 in rural and 49,238 in urban areas), and a total of 513,366 persons (305,904 in rural and 207,462 in urban areas).
The survey collected qualitative and quantitative data on the education levels of members of households, and the educational services they used. Qualitative data included details about literacy, the education level attained, attendance and enrolment in educational institutions, and reasons for not enrolling in or attending classes. The quantitative data included expenditure incurred on a family member’s education by the household, other households or institutions other than the government.
This report has three chapters: Chapter One is an introduction; Chapter Two covers the survey’s features, such as the information collected, the period in which the survey was conducted and the sample design; and Chapter Three presents the main findings. The report also contains four appendices.
The survey was spread over 14,285 ‘first stage units’. These comprised of 6,188 ‘Urban Frame Survey Blocks’ for urban areas. For rural areas, these units included 8,097 villages – and panchayat wards in the case of Kerala – which were listed in Census 2011.
The survey covered 286,456 persons between the ages of three and 35 years; 173,397 in rural areas and 113,059 in urban areas.
In India, 26.1 per cent of persons above 15 years of age – 34.5 per cent of females and 18.1 per cent of males – are not literate. These numbers for rural areas are 31.5 per cent (41.2 per cent of females and 22.2 per cent of males), and for urban areas the numbers are 13.9 per cent (19.3 per cent of females and 8.8 per cent of males). A person who can read, write and understand a simple message in any language is considered literate in NSS surveys.
In rural areas, 0.8 per cent of the population (0.5 females and 1.1 per cent males) has received ‘formal’ vocational or technical training, and 3 per cent (1.4 females and 4.8 per cent males) have received other kinds of vocational or technical training. In urban areas the corresponding numbers are 2.3 per cent of the population (1.8 females and 2.7 per cent males) who have received formal vocational or technical training, and 3.1 per cent (1.2 females and 4.9 per cent males) have received other kinds of vocational or technical training.
In rural areas, 73.7 per cent of students (72 per cent of male and 75.7 per cent of female students) attend government institutions for primary education, 5.3 per cent (5.6 per cent male and 5 per cent female students) attend ‘private aided’ institutions, and 20.9 per cent (22.3 per cent of male and 19.2 per cent of female students) attend ‘private unaided’ institutions.
In urban areas, 50.5 per cent of students (51.2 per cent of male and 49.7 per cent of female students) attend ‘private unaided’ institutions for primary education, 30.9 per cent (30.4 per cent of male and 31.5 per cent of female students) attend government institutions, and 18.2 per cent (18 per cent of male and 18.6 per cent of female students) attend ‘private aided’ institutions.
In India, 47.2 per cent students (49.3 per cent of female and 45.6 per cent of male students) between 3 and 35 years of age receive free education – that is, they are not required to pay any fees. The proportion of students that receive free education in rural and urban areas is 57 and 23.4 per cent, respectively.
The percentage of students reporting that their educational institution provided free mid-day meals is 41.8 per cent – 50 per cent in rural and 21.4 per cent in urban areas. Of this, 98.6 per cent of students study in government institutions.
The average annual expenditure for pre-primary education in India is Rs. 8,997 – Rs. 14,509 in urban areas and Rs. 5,655 in rural areas. It is Rs. 12,221 (Rs. 23,832 in urban and Rs. 9,148 in rural areas) for higher secondary education.
In India, 50.8 per cent of the average expenditure on education is spent on course fee, examination fee, development fee and other compulsory payments; 20.1 per cent is spent on books, stationery and uniform; 12 per cent goes in transport; 11.8 per cent is spent on private coaching, and 5.2 per cent on other expenses.
The survey notes that 42.2 per cent of female and 42.7 per cent of male students between 3 and 35 years of age did not attend classes despite being enrolled in educational institutions. The reasons for this included a lack of interest in education (14.8 per cent of female and 18.8 per cent of male students); financial constraints (17.7 per cent of female and 24.3 per cent of male students); engagement in domestic activities (30.2 per cent of female and 4 per cent of male students); and engagement in economic activities (5.3 per cent of female and 36.9 per cent of male students). It also notes that 13.2 per cent of female students did not attend classes due to marriage.
Focus and Factoids by Vedika Inamdar.
National Statistical Office
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi