Rural Health Statistics, 2021-22
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, released the Rural Health Statistics for the year 2021-22 on January 12, 2023. This annual publication, the first of which was released in the year 1992, provides data on infrastructure existing at various levels of the public healthcare system across states and union territories in the country. It contains data from sub centres (SCs), primary health centres (PHCs), community health centres (CHCs), sub-divisional hospitals, district hospitals and medical colleges for upto March 31, 2022.
There were significant gaps in the infrastructure providing specialised care at CHCs, the report reveals. CHCs lacked 83.2 per cent of the required surgeons, 74.2 per cent of the required obstetricians and gynaecologists, 79.1 per cent of physicians and 81.6 per cent of the required paediatricians. “Overall, there is a shortfall of 79.5% specialists at the CHCs as compared to the requirement for existing CHCs,” the report adds.This 270-page document is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains an overview of healthcare system in India and Part 2 provides detailed state-wise statistics from rural, urban and tribal areas. Part 2 is divided into nine sections: Comparative Statements (Rural Areas) (Section I); District-wise Health Care Infrastructure in India (Section II); Demographic Indicators (Section III); Healthcare Infrastructure and Building position (Section IV); Status of Health Manpower in Rural areas (Section V); Status of Health Infrastructure in Rural areas (Section VI); Status of Infrastructure and Health Manpower in Urban areas (Section VII); Rural Health Care - Some parameters of achievement (Section VIII); and Health Infrastructure and Manpower in Tribal Areas (Section IX).
There were 161,829 sub centres in India as of March 31, 2022 – 157,935 of which functioned in rural areas.
There were 31,053 primary health centres functioning across rural and urban areas in India, as of March 31, 2022. About 24,935 PHCs were located in rural areas and 6,118 in urban areas.
As of March 31, 2022, there were 6,064 functional CHCs in the country – 5,480 in rural and 584 in urban areas.
The number of sub centres increased by 11,909 since the year 2005. There was notable increase in SCs in Rajasthan (3,011), Gujarat (1,858), Madhya Pradesh (1,413) and Chhattisgarh (1,306).
As per the report, the average rural population covered by one sub centre was 5,691 individuals. On an average, one PHC and CHC covered 36,049 and 164,027 individuals respectively in rural areas.
At an all-India level, the report notes a deficit of 3.1 per cent in the total requirement for allopathic doctors at rural PHCs. Significant shortfall (the difference between the required number and number already in-position) of doctors at PHCs was noted in Odisha (298), Chhattisgarh (279) and Karnataka (60). This was despite the increase in number of allopathic doctors at PHCs in rural areas from 20,308 in 2005 to 30,640 in 2022 – an increase of about 51 per cent.
As of March 31, 2022, there were 8,473 AYUSH doctors available at PHCs across the country, the report states.
The number of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) at SCs and PHCs in rural areas increased from 133,194 to 207,587 between 2005-2022. This marked an increase of 55.9 per cent.
The overall shortfall in the posts of Health Worker (Female)/ANM is 3.5 per cent of the total requirement. As per the Indian Public Health Standards, one Health Worker (Female)/ANM is required per SC and PHC.
As on March 31, 2022, a total of 1,275 sub-divisional hospitals were functional in rural areas – operating with 18,643 doctors and about 45,992 paramedical staff.
In rural areas across the country, there were 767 functional district hospitals. These hospitals comprised 29,817 doctors and about 95,444 paramedical staff.
Urban CHCs had around 1,568 General Duty Medical Officers (GDMOs), 358 radiographers, 840 pharmacists, 902 lab technicians and 6,121 nursing staff. There were numerous vacancies (the difference between the filled and the sanctioned posts) in urban CHCs for the posts of radiographers (32.2 per cent), pharmacists (18 per cent), lab technicians (19.1 per cent) and nursing staff (19.3 per cent).
Focus and Factoids by Dipanjali Singh.
PARI Library's health archive project is part of an initiative supported by the Azim Premji University to develop a free-access repository of health-related reports relevant to rural India.
Statistics Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi
12 Jan, 2023