National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16: Madhya Pradesh


Since 1992, the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, has conducted the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The survey provides detailed information on population, health and nutrition in each state and union territory of India.  

This state report on Madhya Pradesh presents the important findings of the survey’s fourth round, conducted in 50 districts between January 29 and July 24, 2015. Previous NFHS surveys were conducted in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

NFHS-4 surveyed 572,000 households in 640 districts of India (as per the 2011 Census). In Madhya Pradesh, data was gathered from 52,042 households; 62,803 women (aged 15-49) and 10,268 men (aged 15-54) were interviewed.

The survey collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of households, education, fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. It also gathered information on reproductive health, sexual behaviour, marriage, domestic violence, and attitudes towards gender roles. And it included information on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, nutrition, water and sanitation, health services and insurance.


  1. Around 36 of the households surveyed in Madhya Pradesh lived in a pucca (permanent) structure and 41 per cent in a semi-pucca structure. Nearly 57 per cent of all households did not use a sanitation facility – an improvement from 73 per cent in NFHS-3 – and the family members defecated in the open.

  2. Nearly 94 per cent of urban and 80 per cent of rural households had a mobile phone.

  3. 48 per cent of the households surveyed owned some agricultural land and 35 per cent owned irrigated land.

  4. Around 82 per cent of children in the 6-17 age group attended school. Only 14 per cent of women and 22 per cent of men (in the 15-49 age group) had completed 12 or more years of schooling.

  5. 32 per cent of women aged 20-24 years were married before the legal minimum age of 18, down from 57 per cent in NFHS-3. And 7 per cent of girls in the 15-19 age group had children as compared to 14 per cent during NFHS-3.

  6. 41 per cent of men (aged 15-49) thought contraception was ‘women’s business’. Contraceptive use among married women (aged 15-49) was 51 per cent as compared to 24.1 per cent among married men (aged 15-54).

  7. The use of ‘modern family planning methods’, such as male and female sterilisation, condoms or birth control pills, among others, was 50 per cent, down from 53 per cent in NFHS-3.

  8. Only 18 per cent of women and 29 per cent of men had comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS.

  9. The NFHS-4 infant mortality rate was estimated at 51 before the age of one per 1,000 live births, down from the NFHS-3 estimate of 70 and the NFHS-2 estimate of 88. Around 18-19 per cent of the women and men surveyed wanted more sons than daughters.

  10. Around 54 per cent of 12-23 month-old kids had received all the basic vaccinations against six major childhood illnesses (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio and measles) before the survey. Only 6 per cent had not received any vaccinations at all.

  11. The private medical sector was the main source of healthcare for 58.2 per cent of both urban and rural households. Only 40.4 per cent of urban and rural households used public health facilities.

  12. In only 18 per cent of the households surveyed at least one member was covered by any health insurance. About 23 per cent of households in urban areas and 15 per cent in rural areas had health insurance.

  13. Only 40.2 per cent of all women aged 15-49 were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey as compared to 83.7 per cent of men in the same age group. Around 37 per cent of women had a bank account that they themselves used.

  14. Nearly 50 per cent of the women surveyed believed that it was justified for a husband to beat his wife under some circumstances, while around 43 per cent of men said the same, especially if the wife was disrespectful towards her in-laws (29 per cent) or if the husband suspected that she was unfaithful (24 per cent). 

  15. 32 per cent of women in the 15-49 age bracket had experienced physical or sexual violence, but only 11 per cent had sought help. 33 per cent of women who had ever been married were subjected to physical or sexual violence from their current or most recent husbands.

    Focus and Factoids by Ashvita Singh.


International Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai

Contributors: Chander Shekhar, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, B. Paswan and Anne Cross


Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi


01 Sep, 2017