EnviStats – India 2023 (Volume I: Environment Statistics)


The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, released the first volume of the EnviStats – India 2023 on April 17, 2023. The EnviStats were first published in 2018 and this the sixth edition in the series. Volume II of this edition was published on September 29, 2023. 

The framework of the report is guided by the United Nations Statistics Division’s Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics. The report collates national as well as state-wide data on rainfall, soil conditions, water and wetlands, forests, biodiversity, climate conditions and the factors influencing them. It derives its data from a variety of sources, ranging from scientific research to remote sensing and thematic mapping. 

The 334-page report is structured in six components: Environment Conditions and Quality (Component 1); Environmental Resources and their Use (Component 2); Residuals (Component 3); Extreme Events and Disasters (Component 4); Human Settlements and Environmental Health (Component 5); and Environmental Protection, Management, and Engagement (Component 6).


  1. Annual rainfall in India has increased over the last two decades. In 2022, it was recorded to be 1,257 millimetres, slightly exceeding the previous year's 1,236 millimetres.

  2. Inland water resources include rivers, canals, reservoirs, tanks, ponds, beels, oxbow lakes as well as derelict or brackish water. As per 2021 data from the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, all water bodies (except rivers and canals) cumulatively covered an area of 8.6 million hectares. The report measures rivers and canals in length with the total coming to 280,751 kilometres.

  3. Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks encompass five per cent of the total geographic area of India, states data from the Wildlife Institute of India. As of 2022, there were 106 national parks and 567 wildlife sanctuaries in India, both covering an area of 44,403 square kilometres and 122,565 square kilometres respectively

  4. Around 222 (67 per cent) monitoring stations under the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme recorded PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometres or smaller) levels surpassing National Ambient Air Quality Standards of 60 μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic metre). Heavy concentrations of particulate matter are known to cause health issues.

  5. In 2021-22, gross power generation in the country was recorded to be 1,484,463 gigawatt hours (GWh), 8.1 per cent more than last year. Since 2011-12, power generation from hydro (130,511 to 151,627 GWh), nuclear (32,287 to 47,112 GWh) and renewable energy sources (51,226 to 170,912 GWh) has grown steadily. However, power generated from coal and lignite has also grown considerably in the same period – from 612,497 GWh to 1,078,581 GWh.

  6. In 2020-21, the consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium based fertilizers (all classified under ‘chemical fertilizers’) amounted to 325.36 lakh tonnes. The total chemical fertilisers produced were around 184.54 lakh tonnes and those imported amounted to 108.46 lakh tonnes. Nitrogen fertilizers contributed the highest share in all three categories.

  7. In most populated cities, sewage generation is far more than its treatment capacity, according to 2017 data by the Central Pollution Control Board. The data records sewage generation at 18,269 million litres per day (MLD) with the treatment capacity only 9,576 MLD.

  8. In 2022, 2,859 ‘grossly polluting industries’ released significant effluents into rivers and lakes. Of these, only 2,059 are recorded as following norms set by the Central Pollution Control Board. Among all states and union territories, Uttar Pradesh had the highest number of such industries (1,648), followed by Haryana (661) and Arunachal Pradesh (97).

  9. Climate change increases the frequency of heat and cold waves in India, which are measured by the Indian Meteorological Department. In 2022, Rajasthan had 26 heatwave days, the most recorded followed by Punjab and Haryana which saw 24 each. On the other hand, Haryana experienced the highest number of cold wave days (nine), followed by Madhya Pradesh (seven) as well as Telangana and Chhattisgarh (six each).

  10. Based on data from the Ministry of Fishing, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, the report notes an increase in fish production in India. Total production increased from 107.6 lakh tonnes in 2015-16 to 162.48 lakh tonnes in 2021-22. Inland fish production was higher than marine – 121.21 lakh tonnes compared to 41.27 lakh tonnes.

    Focus and Factoids by Rusham Sharma.


Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi


Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi


17 Apr, 2023