National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16: Rajasthan
Since 1992, the International Institute for Population
Sciences, Mumbai, has conducted the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for
the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The survey provides detailed
information on population, health and nutrition in each state and union
territory of India.
This state report on Rajasthan presents the important findings of the survey’s fourth round, conducted in 33 districts between January 23 and July 21, 2016. Previous NFHS surveys were conducted in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.
NFHS-4 surveyed 572,000 households in 640 districts of India (as per the 2011 Census). In Rajasthan, data was gathered from 34,915 households; 41,965 women (aged 15-49) and 6,309 men (aged 15-54) were interviewed.
The survey collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of households, education, fertility, family planning, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. It also gathered information on reproductive health, sexual behaviour, marriage, domestic violence, and attitudes towards gender roles. And it included information on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, nutrition, water and sanitation, health services and insurance.
Only 64 per cent of the households surveyed in Rajasthan lived in a pucca (permanent) structure and 91 per cent had electricity. 46 per cent did not use a sanitation facility – a substantial improvement from 69 per cent in NFHS-3 – and family members defecated in the open. Around 36 per cen) of all households had water piped within their dwellings.
41 per cent women and 13 per cent of men (both in the 15-49 age group) had never been to school. Only 16 per cent of women and 29 per cent of men had completed 12 or more years of schooling.
More than one-third (35 per cent) of women aged 20-24 had been married before the legal minimum age of 18 years, down from 65 per cent in NFHS-3.
At 2.4 children per women the total fertility rate in Rajasthan had declined by 0.8 children since NFHS-3.
About 45 per cent of men (aged 15-49) believed that contraception was ‘women’s business’. 60 per cent of married women (aged 15-49) used some kind of contraceptive method. The use of contraceptives decreased as schooling increased – 64.4 per cent of married women with no schooling opted for any kind of contraceptive method as compared to 51.8 per cent of married women with 12 or more years of schooling.
Only 38.5 per cent of mothers had four or more antenatal care visits for their last live birth in the five years preceding the survey. For 65 per cent of their last births, mothers received iron and folic acid supplements, but only 17 per cent consumed them for the recommended 100 days or more. 84 per cent of births took place in health facility.
55 per cent of 12-23 month-old kids had received all the basic vaccinations against six major childhood illnesses (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio and measles) before the survey.
A majority (60 per cent) of children aged 6-59 months were anaemic, while 47 per cent of the women and 17 per cent of the men interviewed for the survey had anaemia.
According to self-reports, 649 women and 907 men (in the 15-49 age group) per 100,000 had diabetes, while 942 women and 667 men per 100,000 suffered from asthma. The prevalence of any heart disease was much higher among women (613 per 100,000) than among men (399 per 100,000).
Around 47 per cent of men used some form of tobacco as compared to 6 per cent of women. Only 16 per cent of men and almost no women said they drank alcohol.
The public health sector was the main source of healthcare for more than three-fifths of urban and rural households. Only 12 per cent of women and 9 per cent of men were covered by any health scheme or insurance.
55 per cent of women aged 15-24 used a ‘hygienic method of menstrual protection’ (locally prepared napkins, sanitary napkins and tampons). Women with at least 12 years of schooling were almost four times as likely to do so as women with no schooling.
About three-fifths (58 per cent) of women had a bank account that they used themselves. Of these, 75 per cent had 12 or more years of schooling. While 26 per cent of women knew of microcredit programmes, only 2 per cent had ever taken a loan from one.
23 per cent of women owned a house and 19 per cent owned land, either by themselves or with someone else. 41 per cent of women had a mobile phone that they used themselves.
33 per cent of women believed a husband was justified in beating his wife under some circumstances. 25 per cent who had ever been married had experienced physical or sexual violence from their current or most recent husbands. Only 14 per cent sought help.
Focus and Factoids by Shubha Srishti.
International Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
Contributors: Laxmi Kant Dwivedi, Abhishek Singh, Dhananjay Bansod and Ladys Ortiz
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi
01 Oct, 2017